# Why I Use Vagrant So Much

I use Vagrant for a bunch of different tasks. If I’m forced to use a Windows-based workstation I like to use Vagrant so that I have a standard Linux virtual machine available to me at all times so that I can do basic types of tasks that I might need bash, python, ruby, or gnu-utils for. I also use it for what it’s mostly intended for: having a development environment that mimics my targetted deployment environment in as many ways as possible.

Suppose that I’m working on a MEAN stack website. I probably don’t want to actually just build it on my machine, especially if I’m working with someone else. Yes, my personal machines all use Debian Stable, which should be just fine for development that targets an Ubuntu VM in the cloud, or on a VPS, but my personal machines also have a bunch of software installed that has nothing to do with the operation of a website. I’m talking about things like window and desktop managers, web browsers, my time tracking application, sqlite, and lots of other software that’s out there.

Let’s complicate this further and suppose that I’m collaborating on this with a teammate who’s on a Mac. Just for the heck of it, let’s say that we have third teammate helping us out who’s on Windows. They have all of their own stuff running on their machines that works in different and unique ways that fail to be close in any way to the deployment target. So in this situation, we need a way to have a common target that we can develop and test towards. This is where Vagrant comes to the rescue.

Vagrant (github) is a tool built mostly in Ruby for driving Virtual Machines across different platforms in a standardized way. It integrates well with various configuration management tools like Chef, and is even capable of driving your VM’s in most, if not all, major cloud providers.

I (and my colleagues) predominantly use it to drive VirtualBox on our workstations, though we’re hoping that as our IT org moves more towards infrastructure-as-code we’ll be able to get them to give us standardized images as well as the ability to deploy these directly to our cloud provider.

# Ways that Vagrant helps our work

So far I’ve only explained how Vagrant helps my team collaborate on development towards a common deployment target, regardless of what kind of operating systems we’re actually running on our workstations. For actually doing the work, Vagrant also helps in bunch of other ways.

We automatically suppose that our ultimate deployment target is just going to be a barebones Linux VM, probably either CentOS or Ubuntu. However, we have a bunch of software that we need to install in order to be able to get a running website, analytics service, or database. Vagrant helps here because we can create provisioning scripts in something like bash (or a configuration management system if we were more advanced) and lets us provision, modify scripts, and reprovision virtual machines on our workstations in very quick iterations. That way, if something is messed up in the way we configured our server or software we can quickly detect that, fix it in the script, and then reprovision the VM to test and check it out. We can even include scripts to do things like configuring our cron jobs, setting up systemd so that the process running our website can start on boot and recover from failures, configure our webserver (like nginx or apache), and any number of other things that we would like to happen during server provisioning. The best part is that we haven’t wasted a dime on our actual deployment server yet!

# The Vagrantfile

You configure your VM’s using a Vagrantfile, which specifies the VM image you want to use, the size of the VM (think CPU cores and memory), what kind of a networking situation needs to happen to make it similar to the deployment target (like available ports, etc), and shared folders (so that you can still just modify all of your code using your local text editor, and not whatever is available once you login to the VM). Vagrantfiles have a lot of different configuration options, but these are the ones that are probably most important for a normal user, along with telling it what scripts you want it to run as part of the provisioning process. Since your Vagrantfile is just ruby code, you get the benefit of being able to include it in your project’s repository, so that it can be easily shared with all the members of your team.

So let’s say that you want to use Vagrant for a project. Doing a basic setup is extremely easy. You just run vagrant init and it will create a barebones Vagrantfile for you to modify as needed.

So, what do you put in your Vagrantfile? Let’s make a list about what we know about our website project:

• We need to have port 80 available.
• We plan on using nginx and mysql.
• We need NodeJS, version 8.x installed.
• Deployment target is Ubuntu 16.04.

When you open your Vagrantfile, it will have a bunch of boilerplate with some sensible defaults and explanations about common configuration settings that you can have. I’m going to exclude all of that here and just put in the Vagrant configs that we actually need to accomplish what’s in our list.

Vagrant.configure("2") do |config|

# The bento project provides high quality VM images for a number of Linux OS's.
config.vm.box = "bento/ubuntu-16.04"

# We need port 80 on our VM, but let's forward it port 8080 on the laptop.
config.vm.network "forwarded_port", guest: 80, host: 8080

# Here's our VirtualBox configurations
config.vm.provider "virtualbox" do |vb|
# Display the VirtualBox GUI when booting the machine
vb.gui = false

# Customize the amount of memory on the VM:
vb.memory = "1024"
vb.cores = "2"
end

# We could modify this to point at a provision script, but we'll just do it inline.
# Keep in mind that everything in this block is run as root at /home/vagrant.
config.vm.provision "shell", inline: <<-SHELL
# Copied from https://github.com/nodesource/distributions
curl -sL https://deb.nodesource.com/setup_8.x | sudo -E bash -

apt-get update
apt-get install -y nginx mysql git nodejs
SHELL

end


# Launching Vagrant

Once the Vagrantfile is written we can launch the VM by running vagrant up and we’ll soon have a running VM. Keep in mind that the first time you run vagrant up for any particular Virtual Machine Image (bento/ubuntu-16.04 in this case), Vagrant will first download the Virtual Machine Image (called boxes in Vagrant parlance) into a default VM library, then create a copy of it to be configured according to what you’ve specified. Because of this, you definitely need a fast internet connection, and ideally should have an SSD installed to your workstation. Once you have that box downloaded once, you won’t have to download it again, though Vagrant may let you know when a new version of the box is available for download.

Vagrant will also print out a bunch of messages describing what it’s doing at any given moment, as well as everything that gets printed to stdout and stderr as a result of the commands run in your config.vm.provision block. When the provisioning process is complete, Vagrant will return you to your command prompt with either a success message or a message that there was some kind of failure. If it was a success, and even in some failure cases, you should now be able to log in to your running VM by using vagrant ssh. Then, once you’re in you can check that everything is as you intended the configuration to be.

# Dealing with misconfiguration

If you do find a problem with your configuration you can start editing your Vagrantfile and provisioning scripts to correct your mistakes. Once you’re done making your changes you reprovision the VM at a level appropriate for the change you’re making.

# Say you're just changing a minor configuration detail, you can just run:

vagrant destroy
vagrant up


Keep in mind that just doing vagrant reload --provision will also take less time than destroying and starting totally fresh, so just be aware of what you’re doing and not wasting more time than you need to in getting your configurations correct.

# Wrapping up

So we’ve covered some good uses and reasons for using Vagrant, we did a quick demo showing off how to configure a Vagrant box for use in a project, and how to deal with configuration problems. Now it’s up to you to find novel uses of this great piece of software and start building good, reproducible software with it!